WHAT IS HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY?
Hip replacement is also known as Total Hip Arthroplasty and is performed to remove the worn out joint of the hip with an artificial joint or prosthesis. It is common for patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or traumatic arthritis which creates swelling in the joints and reduce mobility. To replace the ball and socket joints a total hip replacement surgery using metal, ceramic or plastic material is done. The cartilages that are damaged are replaced with new materials. In this surgery an incision that is several inches long is made over the hip joint. Minimally invasive hip replacement uses several incisions of small depths. Hip replacement is recommended for:
- Traumatic arthritis
- Hip fractures
- Joint failures
- Protrusio acetabuli
- Bone tumors
- Rheumatoid arthritis and
- Avascular necrosis.
Pain from hip fracture is often very serious and resists movement and daily activities. Hip replacement cures it all. The main aim of the hip replacement surgery is to replace the damaged parts of the hip joint and to free the patient from the pain that otherwise could not be controlled. Hip replacement surgery is different for each patient depending on their health and hip condition.
Types of Hip Replacement
There are mainly two types of hip surgeries using different techniques and components. One is the hip replacement and other is the hip resurfacing.
TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT: In this kind of hip surgery a part of femur (thigh bone) including the head of femur (ball) is removed and a totally new artificial ball of smaller size is fixed into the remaining thigh bone. Existing socket in the pelvis’s surface is roughened so that new socket component can be accepted so that it joins up with the new ball component. With the help of acrylic cement many artificial parts are joined, but in younger patients it is left as such for the bones to grow. If one part is fixed with cement it is known as hybrid hip replacement. Different replacement combinations used are:
HIP RESURFACING: In this procedure over the head of the thigh bone a hollow metal cap is fitted. This surgery involves lower risk than the former one. This is not suitable for people having low bone density or suffering from osteoporosis. This surgery often causes inflammatory reactions and effects on health are unknown. It is rather less used than the total hip replacement.
Procedure of Operation
- Doctors insert a small intravenous tube in your arm to administer the antibiotics and the medication through the surgery.
- After giving the anesthesia a urinary catheter is inserted and will be left there for at least two days.
- The operation begins after the compression stockings and pneumatic sleeves are put on both the legs.
- Firstly the end of the thigh bone called femur is cut and a new metal ball component is fitted in its place. Cement is then used to stabilize it.
- A new socket is inserted after the damaged one is smoothened for the preparation.
- After this the socket and the ball are joined together.
- After the surgery is done the incision is closed and dressing is done to cover the wound.
- Fluids that develop at the surgical sites are removed by inserting small drainage tubes.
- After the wearing off of anesthesia patients are made to breathe deeply to clear lungs.
- After that pain relievers are given and foam wedge are placed between legs to hold the hip joint together.
- After this the recovery process starts and patients are given post operation medications and guidelines.
After the hip replacement is done a little walking is encouraged. New hip will hurt but it is recommended to stay in hospital for at least 3-5 days. Patients usually walk with the help of the crutches for 4-6 weeks after operation but will recover fully after 3-4 months. Recovery time is thus based on patient’s health and his age and medical history. After the surgery patients should follow the proper exercise process recommended by their physiotherapist and should follow it religiously. It will help the hip set to its right place without any problem. Hip replacement will again provide the same mobility after few months.
Benefits of Hip Replacement
- Muscles are not damaged. Surgeons work on fewer muscles at the front of the hip, so no muscle fiber is cut or detached from the bones.
- Post operation patients feel much less pain.
- Patients can walk by themselves even just after the surgery.
- Muscles of the soft tissues are not disturbed and thus the risk of hip dislocation is highly reduced. The hip’s ball and socket remain at their position without any damage.
- After few weeks of surgery patients can move their legs again freely with a better range of movement. Extreme bending is avoided but mobility sure improves.
What is the material used for hip replacement?
Four categories are there. Metal-on-metal, metal-on-plastic, ceramic-on-plastic, ceramic-on-ceramic are those. The material is used for bearings, balls or sockets to be replaced. Metal-on-metal is less used now since the metal ions are released in the blood due to friction and wear.
How lasting are the hip replacements?
They last quite long between 15-20 years. They can last longer depending on the person’s health, regular exercises and most importantly on the weight of the patient.
Is there any pain during the surgery?
If the general anesthesia is given than you will be asleep during the surgery and feel no pain. If the spinal block anesthesia is given then lower portion will be numb and you will be awake within the course of the surgery. After surgery and during recovery you will definitely experience some pain.
Are there any complications?
Some common complications are infection, bone fracture, dislocation of hip joint or blood clots. Other than that one leg may become longer than the other but doctors generally avoid these complications.
Is this surgery necessary?
To avoid progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis this surgery is important.
Treatment in Mumbai/ Thane
Hip replacement is extremely necessary if there is any problem in the joint that resists the mobility. This is because the longer wait can lead to development of several joint related diseases. Doctors that are expert in these surgeries and best of the orthopedics in Mumbai/ Thane can treat this disorder with maximum rate of success. With proper identification of patients medical history and health status operation is performed. Such operations in Mumbai/ Thane cost nominal and are effective with long term of satisfaction. Since hip replacement is a crucial decision surgeons that are experienced should be preferred.