ORTHOPEDIC TESTS AND SCREENINGS
In order to treat any problem, there must be a way to identify the problem and the proper solution can thus be found out. Body parts such as spine, bones, muscles or joints can be examined by different orthopedic tests and screenings. Then doctors can plan specific treatment for the disorder. Various kinds of orthopedic tests and screenings are CT scan, Epiduroscopy, MRI, Selective nerve root block, and Endoscopic disc stimulation diagnosis. Various 3D treatments that are available are as follows:
CT scan: It is a computerized tomography scan that works by combining the X-rays that are taken from multiple angles forming a cross-sectional image of soft tissues and blood vessels.
Epiduroscopy: The test is used to check the inflammation and damages in the nerve root. In this, the epidural space is visually examined using an epiduroscopy. It shows nerves that connect the spinal cord to the rest of the body.
MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging uses the magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of organs and tissues.
Other forms of 3D techniques involve Endoscopic Disc Stimulation diagnosis, Facet Medial Branch Block, and Selective Nerve Root Block.
Types of Tests and Screening
- Blood tests: In this a small amount of blood is removed from the arm. Patients are usually asked not to eat before the test. Rheumatoid arthritis can be detected by presence of specific substance in the blood by the blood test.
- Arthrography: In this various X-rays of the bones in different positions are taken by inserting an iodine solution into the joint areas. Various joint areas such as the ligaments, cartilages, tendons and capsules are highlighted using a fluoroscope. If the patient is allergic to something or is pregnant it should be stated to the orthopedic.
- Bone Scan: There are mainly two types of bone scan. One is the test for testing the density of the bones. This is done to identify the presence of osteoporosis. It uses a narrow X-ray or ultrasound to see how solid your bone is. Second test is used to identify whether there is an active bone formation. This is used to identify arthritis, infection or cancer. The patient is given a radioactive substance called technetium through the IV so that the bone can absorb it. After three hours the test is performed. Technetium is used in the bone formation process. There are no side effects as minimum radioactive waves are absorbed.
- CT Scan: A computer tomography test is done to obtain various cross sectional images of the body which cannot be obtained through normal X-Ray process. This is done if the doctor inspects a tumor, or a fracture. In this process a person is made to lie down and slides in the centre of a scanner. An X-ray tube rotates and takes images from all the sides. Barium sulfate is made to be consumed so that a certain area of the body seems brighter and can be seen.
- Doppler Ultrasound: This test is normally conducted if blood vessels of arms or legs have blockage in it. A high frequency wave that echoes off the body is used to take the ultrasound test. A jelly is applied to the area being tested and an instrument looking like microphone is used to test the affected portion of the body.
- Discography: The test determines whether the cushioning pads or the discs have left the spine and are causing the back pain. One or more needle with the contrast dye is inserted in the disc to see the changes in the disc shape.
- Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: It recognizes the density of the bones. Patients with osteoporosis are monitors if having any changes in bone density by taking a picture of bones in the hips, spine, body and wrist and then calculate the total density.
- Dual Photon Absorptiometry: It is similar to a previous test and has been taken over. In this test the density of bone is measured by using a photon beam.
- Single Photon Absorptiometry: This test is not as effective as the previous one. It measures the bone density only in the lower leg or heel and not in the spine or the hip. Though inexpensive it is moderately accurate.
- Electromyography: It is used to identify and analyze the electrical activity in the nerve muscle. More about the functioning of nerves in arms and legs is studied. If within the 4 months of injury the nerve does not return then this test is conducted.
- Intrathecal Contrast Enhanced CT Scan: This test is used to visualize the spinal canal and the nerve roots in the spine. Back problems such as spinal stenosis in patients with pacemakers go through this test as they cannot go through MRI.
- Flexibility tests: This test examines if there is, where selling occurs due to the collection of some fluid in the joints, sprain is also identified through this test.
- Joint Aspiration and Analysis: Conditions where selling occurs due to the collection of some fluid in the joints is removed by the aspiration analysis so that the swelling and the pain can come down.
- MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the higher version of the CT scan as it takes more sophisticated images of the ligaments, tissues, tendons and cartilages that may be affected due to the joint problems.
- Nerve Conduction Study: NCS is done along with the electromyogram to test the functioning of the nerve. Carpel tunnel syndrome or ulnar nerve entrapment are the common syndrome that leads to this test.
- Physical examination: Symptoms such as weak muscles, swelling, skin color changes, bruises, cysts and calluses often leads the doctor to have a proper physical test of the patient.
- Venography: This test identifies if there is a blood clot in the leg which is a condition called deep vein thrombosis. This condition can take severe turn if the clot breaks as it can travel through the lungs. This can cause pulmonary embolism.
- Ultrasonography: It is similar to the Doppler test but with no audio effects and is more effective.
- Stress tests: The ligaments and the muscles respond to the stress in the body very effectively. If there is any reason they are not responding well, doctors can identify it through the stress tests.
- Quantitative computed tomography: It measures the bone mineral density for osteoporosis. It is similar to the normal CT scan but the computer software package determines the bone density of the hip or the spine. This provides a three dimensional picture of the particular area and the doctor can identify the problem more accurately.
- Palpation: It means touching. In this the physician touches or feels the particular joint to see if they are swollen or there is any sign of inflammation. Also they test to see if there is presence of cyst oo tumors.
- Are the screening tests painful?
These screening tests are normally painless, but the insertion of some fluid or the Intravenous line (IV) in the body can cause the little pain. The fluids intake can make you feel nauseous for a while but after that, it will be okay. These tests are normally harmless with no side effects.
- Is there any precaution that needs to be taken while having these tests?
Not in general. But the doctors may advise you not to eat anything before the tests and fast. Also if you are pregnant or a nursing mother this should previously be stated to your doctor.
- When do I need to take these diagnostic tests?
Different screening tests are there for different kinds of symptoms. Some common symptoms are swelling, weakness, pain in the joints and acute fever. Based on different signs the doctor assigns different tests.
- What are the different kinds of screening tests?
There are various screening tests. But some of the very common are CT scan, Epiduroscopy, MRI, Selective nerve root block, Facet Medial Branch Block and many more. Some more extensive tests for severe signs are: Nerve condition study, electromyography, peripheral bone density testing, ultrasonography, Venography and single photon Absorptiometry.
Diagnosis and Screening Tests in Mumbai/ Thane
These diagnostic tests are very necessary as it gives the doctors the idea as to what is the related disease with the symptoms of the patients. Diagnostic and screening tests should be done with extreme care as the delay in it can cause the chronic diseases and affect the lungs of the patients. Sometimes it leads to total mobility loss. In Mumbai and Thane, these tests can be done with utmost surety as the doctors are highly experienced and there are experts in different screening test department. Patients can get full surety with their medication or operation with the team of elite doctors in Mumbai/Thane.