WHAT IS ARTHRITIS?
Arthritis is commonly known as inflammation but it is not a single disease. It refers to numerous joint pains or joint diseases. People of all age and sex can suffer from arthritis. A delay in the treatment can lead to lifelong disability. Some of the symptoms common in arthritis are a pain, swelling, stiffness and the reduction the motion range. These symptoms initially are very mild but can take severe form during the course of years. Chronic pain, inability to climb stairs and difficulty in walking are the disorders people can get who suffers from arthritis. Not only the joints, arthritis can sometimes affect the heart, lungs, kidneys and the skin of the patient. When an only single joint is affected it is called monoarthritis. If two or three joints are involved it is referred as oligoarthritis. With more than four or more joints involved it is known as polyarthritis. Treatment of arthritis can improve the life quality, minimize the pain and control the joint damage. Various reasons leading to arthritis are infections, immune system dysfunction, injury or genetic makeup. Abdominal metabolism is also one of the causes. Arthritis is mainly common in people above 65 years of age.
Types of Arthritis
More than 200 types of arthritis is there. They are mainly categorized into:
- Inflammatory arthritis: This arthritis damages the inflammation in the body and it does not occur as a normal reaction to injury or burns. This then causes the damage to the joints which results in the swelling, stiffness, and pain. Later it affects the ligaments and the tendons around the joints called as enthesitis. Some of the examples of inflammatory arthritis are reactive arthritis, colitis or psoriasis, RA and ankylosing spondylitis. Inflammatory arthritis can even affect the underlying bones.
- Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain: This kind of arthritis affects the tissues in addition to the bones and the joints. Most commonly the injured or the overused part of the body is affected, such as tennis elbow. It instigates from the muscles or the soft tissues that support the joints. Doctors sometimes get confused if the pain is more pervasive and diagnose it as fibromyalgia.
- Degenerative/ Mechanical arthritis: It refers to a cluster of situation that principally involves the damage to the cartilage which covers the end of the bones. This arthritis makes the cartilage thinner and rougher and restricts the smooth movement. Also, unnecessary bone growth occurs and results in osteoarthritis.
- Back pain: Sometimes pack pain arises from discs, nerves, or ligaments. But sometimes it is due to osteoarthritis. It is called spondylosis if it occurs in a spine. Osteoporosis causes thinning of bone so slip disc may also happen. In most of the cases, it is non-identifiable.
- Connective tissue disease (CTD): Tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that supports or bind together the body tissues are affected. This may also affect skin, muscles, lungs, and kidneys due to inflammation. Different symptoms other than painful joints may be observed. CTD includes dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, and SLE.
- Metabolic arthritis: Sometimes when uric acid gets accumulated it takes the form of needle-like crystals which results in sudden spikes of extreme joint pain and even gout attack. It mainly affects single or number of joints including big toe and hands.
- Infectious arthritis: Infection or inflammation is caused when a bacteria, fungus or virus enters into the joint. This can though be cleared by an antimicrobial medicine or antibiotics but may turn into a chronic disease if prevailed for a very long time. Organisms that cause this arthritis are salmonella or shigella, gonorrhea, or hepatitis C.
this arthritis are: salmonella or shigella, gonorrhea, or hepatitis C. Other more common arthritis types are
- Rheumatoid arthritis: Caused by constant inflammation in the synovial leading to degeneration of cartilage and bones. This results in pain, swelling, and redness.
- Osteoarthritis: It affects all the joints including joint lining, ligaments and underlying bones which leads to pain and stiffness.
- Childhood arthritis: Occurs in people younger than 16 years old.
- Septic arthritis: it is caused by bacteria which causes gonorrhea. It is often referred to as gonococcal arthritis. Joints that are most commonly affected are the knee and the hip.
- Fibromyalgia: It causes abnormal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. In this patients find things painful that is not to normal people.
- Psoriatic arthritis: It is a joint problem that happens due to a skin condition called psoriasis.
- Gout: It is a rheumatic disease occurring due to the formation of uric acid crystals. It causes swollen joint and excruciating pain.
- Sjogren’s syndrome: Caused by destruction of glands causing dry mouth and eyes, nose throat and skin.
- Scleroderma: It affects the connective tissues in the body. Also damages the cells that are forming the line at the walls of small arteries.
Different kinds of arthritis are caused by different reasons. But the potential causes are
- Osteoarthritis is caused due to inheritance.
- Infections cause arthritis such as in Lyme disease.
- Degenerative arthritis is caused due to injury.
- Gout and pseudogout arthritis are caused by abdominal metabolism.
- RA and SLE types of arthritis are caused due to dysfunction in the immune system.
- Many causes working together may cause arthritis. Sometimes no particular reason is identified and the cause of arthritis remains unpredictable.
- Food intolerance or insensitivity may also lead to some kinds of arthritis. Wear out of bones, old age and overwork also lead to arthritis.
If arthritis is not treated on time it may turn into chronic disease. Some of the common symptoms of arthritis are
- Pain: Patient may feel a pain that may come and go. It is sometimes felt in a particular area or in many parts of the body.
- Swelling: Some arthritis causes the bone and skin to become red and get swollen up.
- Difficulty in mobility: getting up from a chair, climbing stairs or walking may cause problems and it indicated the patient is having arthritis or some joint problems.
- Stiffness: Sitting for a long time or getting up in the morning may cause stiffness and problem in getting up. This is the indication of arthritis. Even sitting in a car for a long time may cause a problem.
- Fever: Unexpected and high fevers are also the signs of arthritis.
- Changes in habits: Sometimes sleep disturbances, fatigue, headache, and psychological stress are also the signs of arthritis.
- Shape change in joints: Toe finger, elbow movement and hand movements changes when arthritis is detected.
- Sometimes eyes, throat, mouth, and nose becomes dry and this indicates the person is suffering from arthritis.
Some of the tests that are performed to diagnose arthritis are
- Complete blood count
- C-reactive protein
- Joint X-ray
- Bone scan
- HLA antigens for HLA B27
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Synovial fluid analysis
- Joint ultrasound or MRI
- Rheumatoid factor
- Uric acid- urine
- Uric acid- blood
- Tear test
- A physical examination can detect:
- Joint movement causing crackling sound known as Crepitation
- Limited mobility
- Pain during normal movement
- Tenderness felt when joints are moved
- Swelling of joints that is bone seems to be larger than usual.
- Diagnosis of some kinds of arthritis is difficult and cannot be detected accurately. Sometimes they are detected as normal joint problems.
There are various processes that can cure arthritis
- Weight loss
- Surgery including joint replacement and joint surgery
- Splint or joint assistive aids
- Medication: Analgesics, non-steroidal and inflammatory drugs, counterirritants, biologics, corticosteroids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are given for the medication. These medications can improve the conditions.
- Diet: Various kinds of food that can help people improve the condition can help.Mediterranean diet can help which includes: fish, nuts and seeds, olive oils, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Vegetables can improve arthritis.
- Self-management: Self-management may include various factors that can improve arthritis.Physically active and exercises, maintaining and achieving a healthy weight, protecting joints from unnecessary stress, and developing arthritis management strategies can help avoiding arthritis.
- Physical therapies: Warm water therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapies can help the patients make par with arthritis. Warm water exercises and hot water packs can help in relieving the joints.
- Physical activities: Walking, swimming and riding a bike can help reduce the potential risks of arthritis. The joints that are affected need to be physically active and thus these physical activities are very necessary.Organizing, staying active, improving sleep, joint care and balanced diet can also help in improving the aftereffects of arthritis.
Treatment in Mumbai/ Thane
In Mumbai and Thane, the treatments are easily available and the doctors are highly talented and experienced. Arthritis needs to be treated as soon as possible because the delay can lead to chronic disease. Also, the doctors need to be very talented so that they can diagnose the proper form and arthritis and can suggest a proper treatment. Mumbai and Thane have the better prospects of getting a total treatment so that it can be cured properly. Hence if in India Mumbai is the best place to get your arthritis cured.