Anal Fistula and Fissure SURGERY IN THANE

What are Anal Fistula and Fissure?

anal fistula and fissure

Fistula in-ano

Other conditions which affect the ano-rectum and may be confused with or occur concomitant with hemorrhoids include anal fistula and anal fissures.

A fistula is an abnormal communication between the inside of a hollow organ and the skin.  In the case of an anal fistula the communication is from inside the rectum to the skin outside the anus or on the buttock.  The inciting cause is trauma of defecation which causes a break in the mucosa of the rectum.  Bacteria track into the tissue under the mucosa and form an abscess.  The abscess eventually finds its way to the skin where it ruptures and drains.  The outer opening may heal but the inner opening remains and permits the cycle to repeat itself.  Patients often present with years of repeated abscesses in this area which drain, heal and return again.

Surgical treatment involves opening the entire fistula from its outer opening to its inner opening and allowing the wound to heal from the inside out thus obliterating the fistula.  If the fistula track runs deep to the anal sphincter muscle, the muscle will need to be divided; however, doing so carries a risk of causing fecal incontinence.  Often, when this is the case, the procedure will be done in two stages. During the first stage, the fistula is opened to the level of the anal sphincter muscle including the overlying skin or mucosa, but the sphincter is left intact.  A strip of cotton tape called a “Seton” is passed around the sphincter muscle in this area and tied tight.  This causes the sphincter muscle in this area to scar down.  A few weeks later, it is safe to cut the muscle as it will not retract and open up but instead just stays in place and the remainder of the fistula can heal.  The risk of incontinence is greatly reduced performing the procedure in this way when the sphincter is involved.

Two newer methods for treating anal fistula have recently been introduced.  The first step with both methods is to scrape the inside of the fistula to expose fresh tissue that is more prone to healing.

The first method involves simply injecting the fistula with fibrin glue.  Fibrin is a protein found in the blood which is involved in the final stages of causing blood to clot.  The glue created from fibrin is effective at sealing the fistula.  The recurrence rate is high, but it is a reasonable first attempt and has no risk of causing incontinence.

The second option is to use a collagen fistula plug.  Collagen is the major structural protein which holds us all together.  It is present throughout are bodies and forms the matrix upon which cells grow.  Pure collagen has been used to create matrices for a variety of purposes.  In this case a small plug of collagen in placed in the fistula tract and sutured into place.  The tissues may then grow into the collagen and heal the fistula.  This procedure may or may not be augmented with the use of fibrin glue as described above.  This procedure still has a significant recurrence rate, but again is a very good option to try as it has no risk of causing incontinence.

Anal Fissure

A fissure is simply a crack or tear in the anal skin in the anal canal.  The cause is also straining with bowel movement.  They are often exquisitely painful.  So much so, that when I see a patient in excruciating pain in the anus, the patient will not allow me to do a digital exam and I cannot see a thrombosed hemorrhoid, I will usually just treat for a fissure as the presumptive diagnosis.  Surgical treatment involves doing a lateral sphincterotomy.  The skin in the outer part of the anus is opened slightly to expose the sphincter muscle and the muscle is divided superficially.  This does not carry the same risk of incontinence as when dividing the muscle for a fistula, because the location and degree of muscle division can be completely controlled by the surgeon.  With a fistula, the area of muscle involvement is dictated by the disease.

Surgery for fissures can often be avoided with the use of topical Nitroglycerine applied directly to the anus.  Nitroglycerine relaxes the muscles of the anal sphincter the same way it relaxes the smooth muscle of blood vessels when treating Coronary Artery Disease.  It may cause a low blood pressure in normal patients even when applied to the anus in this manner and therefore, may not be suitable for everyone.  It is; however, a good first line treatment option that often resolves the problem and avoids the need for surgery.

Surgical Hemorrhoidectomy may be combined with a Fistulotomy for concomitant anal fistula or with a sphincterotomy for concomitant anal fissure.

As always, I hope you have found this discussion helpful and invite your commentary.


Dr. Ashish Sarode

Interventional Radiologist

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Dr. Atul Mokashi

Consultant - Urologist


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Dr. Hemant Patil

Advanced Laparoscopic & AWR Surgeon

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Currae Hospital

Dr. Kushal Mittal

Gastroenterologist, Proctologist Surgeon

He had done MS(1992) from MLN Medical College, Allahabad, UP, India He has been an Medical director of MEDICARE Hospital (since July 2001) He is an SURGEON since Jan 1993 and having specialities as Surgical Gastroenterologist, Proctologist He was an Honorary Surgeon, RGMC & CSMH Kalwa Also he is an Editor (India) of Jour Diseases of Colon and Rectum (USA)

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Dr. Mandar Gadgil

Consultant - Laparoscopic and General Surgery

He completed DNB ( General Surgery ) from Rajiv Gandhi Medical College, Kalwa in 2005, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Mumbai in 2006 and Fellowship in Gastroenterology from Lilavati Hospital, Mumbai in 2006.

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Currae Doctor
Currae Doctor

Dr. Rajan Relekar

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Dr. Ramesh Punjani

Consultant - Laproscopic & General Surgeon

Dr Ramesh Punjani is a Practicing General Surgeon for Past 27 Yrs. & Laparoscopic Surgeon for Past 17 Yrs. He has Performed thousands of Laparoscopic Surgeries, Basic as well as advanced.

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Dr. Rangan Iyer

Laparoscopic & General Surgery

Dr. Rangan Iyer practices in Currae Specialty Hospital, Thane. Professional qualification's of the Doctor are MBBS and MS and specializes in General Surgery.

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Dr. Sachin Wani

Consultant - Gastroenterology & GI Surgery

He completed his MBBS from Rajiv Gandhi Medical College, MS from Govt. Medical College. He has done his DNB in GI Hepatobiliary surgery from National Board of Examination. He has underwent a training in Laparoscopic GI Once surgery at Tata Memorial Hospital in 2009. He has also done his training in Laparoscopic Hepatobiliary surgery & Laparoscopic Liver resection at NHS...

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Dr. Sarang Alaspurkar

Consultant - General Surgeon

Dr. Sarang Alaspurkar is a General Surgeon in Thane West, Thane and has an experience of 17 years in this field. Dr. Sarang Alaspurkar practices at Jupiter Hospital in Thane West, Thane. He completed MBBS from Maharashtra Institute of Medical Sciences & Research (MIMSR) in 1997,FCPS - General Surgery from National Board Of Examination in 2003 and DNB from National...

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Dr. Shoaib Padaria


Dr. Shoaib Padaria is a Cardiologist and Vascular Cardiologist at Currae Hospital, Thane. He has 33 years experience in these fields. Dr. Shoaib Padaria completed MBBS from King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College in 1982, MD - General Medicine from King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College in 1985 and DM - Cardiology...

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Dr. Soumyan Dey

Consultant Urologist & Andrologist

Dr. Soumyan Dey is an (Urology) from Grant Medical College and Sir J.J hospital, Mumbai. He was associated with Grant medical college as an Asst. Professor of UROLOGY for 3years.

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Dr. Sunil Bangera

Eminent Laparoscopy surgeon .

He has done his M.B.B.S and M.S from the reputed Grant medical college, Mumbai. He is the first surgeon to start Laparoscopy surgery in Thane in the year 1995. He has 23 years experience of doing laparoscopic surgery and has operated more than fifteen thousand laparoscopy cases. He is a pioneer in advance Laparoscopy surgery. He has operated in over...

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Currae Doctor

Dr. Sunil Sathe

He worked under the guidance of finest teachers of Medical Field like Dr. R D Bapat, Dr. S K Mathur, Dr. A N Supe and Dr. A N Dalvi. He is practicing for last 25 years with teaching experience of 2.5 years and clinical experience of 4.5 years

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Currae Doctor
Currae Doctor

Dr. Vishwanathan Masurkar

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Pain Control

You will be given pain medications at the time of surgery and a prescription to fill at the time of discharge. Most of the pain is from swelling. Medications like Motrin, Advil and Ibuprophen are very helpful after these operations. If you are allowed to take these medications you should do so two or three tablets every 8hrs during the first 5 days after surgery is recommended. In addition you will be given some mild narcotic medications to. Resume all the medications you were taking before surgery unless instructed otherwise.

When do I go home?

Most people will be able to go home after surgery. Arrange for some one to drive you home after surgery. This type of surgery will need some times at least 6-12 weeks for complete recovery.

Dressing changes/Wound care

There will be no dressing in this type of surgery, we advice warm sitiz baths once daily for 10-15 minutes every day after the procedure for 5-6 days

Diet/Bowel Function After Surgery

Bowel activity after abdominal surgery can be very variable. Avoid Constipation, pain medicines can cause constipation to. You can use any over the counter laxatives for the first 3-7 days to prevent constipation. During this time good oral intake of non-caffeinated liquids is advised. Some patients might experience some partial incontinence during the first 2-3 weeks after surgery speak to your surgeon about that during your office visit.

Post-Surgery Care

You will be asked to return to the office for your postoperative evaluation 10 to 14 days following your surgery. Please call the office where you were last seen. Do not go to your primary care physician with postoperative problems. Notify our office first. The instructions above are meant to be a guide. Feel free to call the office with any other issues.


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