Throat is the most vital organ of the human body which plays an important role in the body mechanism. It consists of pharynx and larynx. Adenoids and tonsils help prevent infection. Epiglottis an important part of the throat which seperates the esophagus and the trachea to prevent food and liquid from being inhaled into the lungs. There can be several complications faced if proper care isn’t being taken. We at Currae Speciality Hospital, have the solutions for the complications that you face which can help you restore your normal functioning.
Some of the services provided at Currae are:
- Tonsils and Adenoids
- Neck Cancer
- Thyroid Nodules
- Myringotomy tube insertion
ENT Tonsils And Adenoids
Tonsils and adenoids are parts of one’s immune system. Tonsils are located at the back of one’s throat as lumps of tissue. You can see it if you open your mouth and closely observe. They are similar to lymph nodes found in glands. Adenoids are high in the throat behind the nose and roof of the mouth. They are not visible without special instruments.
The two major problems affecting tonsils and adenoids are throat and nose infections, and significant enlargement that cause nasal obstruction and problems in sleeping, breathing and eating.
Tonsils and adenoids often become enlarged and inflamed while fighting a pathogen. However, some children as well as adults may have enlarged tonsils even without any underlying cause. Though, a clear reason of this enlargement is unknown yet but experts guess some genetic link.
When your tonsils and adenoids get enlarged, these following symptoms are observed,
- Trouble sleeping
- Chronic runny nose
- Trouble breathing through nose
- Loud breathing, snoring
- Voice change because of blocked nose
Such tonsils are first treated with antibiotics. Removal of tonsils can be suggested only if there are recurrent infections despite of taking antibiotics. Tonsils causes an obstruction in breathing and such breathing can lead to snoring and sleepless nights.
In adults, even the possibility of cancerous tumor can be another reason to remove the tonsils and adenoids. For those patients whose severe enlargement has blocked their airway, treatment using steroid is recommended.
ENT Neck Cancer
Neck and head cancer are of different types like cancers of the mouth, nose, salivary glands, sinuses, throat, and lymph nodes. Most of these cancers begin in the moist tissues that line up mouth, nose, and throat.
This cancer is much more common in men then in women. The reason is a higher consumption of tobacco and alcohol that contributes to the development of the cancer. In fact, studies say that as much as 75% of all the neck cancers are linked to smokeless tobacco and smoking.
If found at an early stage, they can be cured but the situation worsens as time passes. Often the patients who go through the treatment go to rehabilitation because treatments of such cancers may affect their breathing, eating, and even speaking.
The way a particular neck cancer behaves speaks volumes about its primary site in which it arises. For example, cancers that begin in vocal cords are very different from the ones that are in the back of the tongue. The most common type of cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, it arises from the cells of that line the inside of nose, mouth, and throat.
Though the causes of neck cancer are ambiguous but most of the cases point to the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Smoking, passive smoking, smokeless tobacco etc all are equally harmful to a person’s health.
There are many bodily changes that start to develop with the inception of neck cancer. Such symptoms should never be ignored and an urgent medical care should be given. Following are the symptoms that people suffering with head and neck cancer may observe,
- Red/white patch in mouth
- Persistent sore throat
- Swelling in the throat that does not heal
- Foul mouth odor
- Double vision
- Numbness or weakness of a particular body part present in the neck
- Pain while trying to chew, swallow or even moving the jaw or tongue
- Nasal obstruction
- Voice change
- Presence of blood in saliva or phlegm
- Dentures that no longer fit the patient
- Ear pain/infection
- Fatigue and tiredness
- Excessive weight loss despite of healthy ad sufficient eating
The treatment that should be given to a particular patient depends hugely on the primary site from where the cancer has arisen. Main treatments and prevention begin with a total avoidance of tobacco and alcohol.
Cancer spreads in four ways:
- Direct extension; Starts from the primary site and spreads over the adjacent areas
- Lymphatic cannels; This spreads through lymphatic channels to lymph nodes
- Perineural spread; spread along nerves to other areas of head and neck
- Spread through blood vessels to distant sites in the body.
In neck cancer, a spread to lymph nodes is pretty common. After identifying the type of cancer and how it’s spreading, one can ether choose to have radiation therapy, surgery, or chemotherapy. The primary is radiation therapy, surgery or both combined depending upon the severity.
ENT Thyroid Nodules
Thyroid nodules are an abnormal excessive growth of tissues in the thyroid gland that are otherwise benign but may get cancerous in some people. The nodules may range from one to many. These nodules can be solid tissue or filled with blood and other fluids. Their existence is pretty common and people tend to develop at least one nodule by the time they reach their 60’s.
The causes are unknown. Nodules run in families and are often inherited depending upon the genetics. They are also found in people with iodine deficiencies. Rarely cancer is the result of such nodules.
Moreover, risk is greater in women than men and chances increases with age.
Thyroid nodules most commonly aren’t really noticeable because of lack of symptoms. However, sometimes they start to make too much of a particular hormone called T3 and T4 and one may face the following symptoms of hyperthyroidism, which means that thyroid has become overactive,
- Irritability, mood swings
- Rapid heart rate
- Sensitivity to high temperature
- irregular or light menstrual period
- Weight loss
- Hair loss
- Difficulty swallowing or breathing
Most nodules are not cancer. And the doctor will simply monitor the patient with ultrasound and physical examination once a year. Nodules making excessive T# and T4 are treated with radioactive iodine or alcohol ablation. Iodine is given as a pill and causes the thyroid gland to shrink over time.
ENT Myringotomy Tube Insertion
A myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny incision is made in the eardrum. This is done to relieve the pressure caused by excessive fluid, or to drain out pus from the middle ear. A tympanostomy tube is inserted into the eardrum to keep the middle ear aerated for a long time to prevent the reaccumulation of the fluid.
Those who opt for myringotomy usually have an obstruction in Eustachian tube as it is unable to perform the drainage and ventilation on its own. Myringotomy has always been used to treat middle ear infection.
For adults, it s usually performed in an outpatient setting. Doctors use phenol and topical lidocaine. Younger ones require general anesthesia.
The patient’s head is tilted slightly towards the opposite of the ear that has to go through the surgery. The operative microscope is used to focus on the external auditory meatus.
New variation uses CO2 laser and a computer driven laser is used to indicate a precise hole. The laser creates the opening without damaging any surrounding area. This perforation remains for several weeks allowing the ear proper ventilation without the tube placement.
Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure that is performed to open the trachea (windpipe). It is performed as an emergency operation in an operation theatre. The term tracheotomy can be used interchangeably with tracheostomy.
There are two different procedures,
- It is done only in emergency situations and can be performed quite rapidly. A small cut is made on larynx and a tube is inserted and connected to the oxygen bag. This emergency procedure is sometime referred to as cricothyroidotomy.
- This second type takes more time and is done in an operating room. The surgeon first makes a cut in the skin of the neck that lies over the trachea. This incision is done between Adam’s apple and top of the breast bone. The surgeon than identifies the rings of cartilage that make up the trachea and cut into the tough walls. Then a metal or plastic tube called tracheostomy tube is inserted through the opening. This tube acts like a windpipe and allows a person to breath.
- Short term risks: Severe bleeding, esophagus may be damaged, lungs may collapse and the tracheotomy tube can be blocked by blood clots, mucus, air etc.
- Long-term risks: The windpipe may get damaged because of Bacteria infection, pressure from the tube, friction from a tube that moves too much. Sometimes the opening doesn’t close on itself after the surgery and has to be closed by a second surgery.